Subjectivity and Performance Art | Doctoral Dissertation | (2013)

Doctoral Dissertation (summary)
Jagiellonian University, 2013

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Pim-Chu CC0 1.0

The Embodiment of the Subject:
Philosophy and Performance within the Context of the Contemporary Cultural Criticism

Summary
The Body as a Meaning – The Embodied Subjectivity

The dissertation is devoted to the concept of the embodiment of the subject in philosophy and culture. It is focused on three major areas. Firstly, it analyses performance which is understood as a specific form of art characterized by authenticity, scandal, and subversion, distancing itself from its meaning in the performance studies theory. The dissertation presents performance art inspirations, similarities, and differences in comparison with other disciplines. Secondly, the work is focused on the area of corporality – it demonstrates its different meanings in philosophy and culture such as representation, sign, and sense). The third area concentrates on subjectivity. The general idea linking together all the aforementioned areas is that, as a form of art, performance combines a subject and an object, thus making visible a break of the modernist paradigm. We are talking about a paradigm which constitutes a transparency of the subject-object relation and which is connected with a concept of corporality, as well as with the history of art and its criticism. Performance art is, therefore, a pretext for asking about the subject and its involvement within various cultural and social discourses, and it shows something that might be described as an embodied subject. The embodiment understood in an existential or a subjective way questions the stable “I” and enables to look at what is different or other. This other could be linked to the concept of subjectivity, the history of art, but above all, it concerns the marginalized. Because performance thinks about the body as a meaning and makes the body an essential centre, it reveals hidden discourses and forms of oppression.

Chapter I

Anthropologies of the History Art

The first chapter Anthropologies of the History of Art introduces the problem of representation and shows a mutual influence of the history of art and of various (social, cultural, visual, etc.) aspects of anthropology. The general aim is to show that a neutral representation does not exist (shown on the example of postcards with naked girls from the former colonies). The only change concerns the concept of a norm, i.e. of what is regarded as accepted within the socio-cultural context. This is what makes the question: „How can we avoid cultural textology?” asked by Barbara Stafford quite relevant. 

Chapter II

Performance and the Every Day: Authenticity, Scandal, and Subversion

While the first chapter provides a theoretical introduction, the second concentrates on the everyday practices of Cynics and the Holy Fools. Important references to this chapter are lectures given by Michel Foucault while teaching at College de France (1984) and a book by Marla Carlson: Performing Bodies in Pain. Medieval and Post-Modern Martyrs, Mystics, and Artists. There are three key terms of the analysis: authenticity, scandal, and subversion. 

Chapter III
Rewriting history and Blurring of Boundaries: Body and Performance Art in the 20th century 

This chapter rewrites the history of embodiment and performance with special emphasis on the 20th-century art in the context of culture. The 20th-century art could be regarded as a process of blurring of differences between certain forms and domains (theatre, art, dance, etc.). To show all these mutual connections, I divided this chapter into three parts. The first part entitled  The Margins of Theatricality and Words analyzes performance and the body in the western theatre of the 20th-century (with key figures, such as e.g. Antonin Artaud, Bertolt Brecht, Jerzy Grotowski, Tadeusz Kantor and The Living Theatre). It explains why, in spite of formal similarities, performance has a completely different meaning in the theatrical context and in the visual arts. Furthermore, the part mentions movements such as Futurism, Dada, Bauhaus, and Fluxus: these movements are regarded as situated closer to the concept of “theatricality and words”. The second part is titled Sound, Movement, Gesture: Music and Dance. As suggested by the titlethis part analyzes changes in music and dance in reference to works of Merce Cunningham, John Cage, Ann Halprin, and Judson Church. It is also interesting to compare how a critical narrative of performance art in the visual arts takes inspiration from dance and music. A particular focus is placed upon issues important for performance art, i.e. the everyday life, a body as a centre/subject, and a natural approach to movement. In the second part, some space has also been devoted to happenings. Finally, the third part Beyond the borders of the picture and matter: painting and sculpture discusses artists such as Joseph Beuys, Eva Hesse, Niki de Saint Phalle, and Jackson Pollock. The aim is to show that performance art was a way to break out of the mould of sculpture and painting. On the critical level, this subsection replaces the key performance precursor Jackson Pollock with Niki de Saint Phalle (a feminist approach), thus linking it to the following chapter. 

Chapter IV
S(he) – Carolee Schneemann

The fourth chapter is devoted to the work of Carolee Schneemann. Using her work as an example, the analysis touches certain concepts of the feminist theory (like the concept of the Istory, the idea of dichotomies/oppositions in the European thought, and the problem of identity). The most important is to show the changing concept of the body as a meaning within the context of authenticity, scandal and subversion. The following two chapters consist of a theoretical comment to the presented empirical material. 

Chapter V
Towards the Embodiment of the Subject: Michel Foucault

After a brief explanation of the key concepts in Michel Foucault’s philosophy, the chapter concentrates on Foucault’s late lectures – Hermeneutics of the subject. Why should a text devoted to the concept of self-care be evoked in the context of performance and embodiment? The answer is not so obvious, as it is connected with the idea of subjectivity. Looking at the thought of Michel Foucault as a whole, what attracts attention in the Hermeneutics of the subject is a shift between the ancient and the modern concept of subjectivity and its relation to the concept of self-care and self-knowledge. While the classical concept of care is presented as an ideal combination of thought and action, the concept of self-knowledge appears only as related to the constitution of the subject, enabling it to act in an ethical way. However, in the modern approach, the constitution of the self as a subject is part of a larger concept of self-knowledge. The modern subjects act only if it is provided with a better knowledge of the self, an action being replaced by knowledge. In this sense, the subject drawn by Foucault in the Hermeneutics is not only a combination of discourse and power: it is as well an individual subject, an outcome of self-governing techniques. Foucault’s idea of “forgetting of the care of the self in the European thought” could be seen in a wider context of “forgetting about the body”. 

Chapter VI
The Embodiment of the Subject: Maurice Merleau-Ponty

The last chapter presents the essential concepts of the philosophy of Maurice Merleau-Ponty: a new meaning of consciousness and perception, the phenomenology of the body, body as a meaning – the embodiment of the subject. Merleau-Ponty’s presence is both evident (he is a philosopher of the body) and problematic (the relation between the phenomenology of the body and performance). Performance art does not illustrate Maurice Merleau-Ponty’s philosophy. The connection is subtler. Marleau-Pontian philosophy builds on the embodiment as an essential centre, while a parallel performance considers the body as a pretext to talk about some other discourses. What happens in both of those concepts is that they question the “I – other” relation which changes from superior and unambiguous to mutual and unstable. The embodiment understood in an existential or a subjective way questions the stable “I” and enables to look at what is different or other. This other could be related to the concept of subjectivity, the history of art, but above all to all that is marginalized.

Summary
The Body as a Meaning – The Embodied Subjectivity

Because performance thinks about the body as a meaning, and because it makes the body an essential centre, it also reveals hidden discourses and forms of oppression. It is therefore important to constantly ask questions on the level of the self, philosophy, and art, as well as to make the body respond to their meanings, tools, interpretations, doubts, continuations, and perhaps to some new areas of oppression.

Introduction
Body as a Representation, Sign, and Sense 

Chapter I
Anthropologies of the History of Art

(A picture and visuality related problem; cultural textology)

Chapter II
Performance and the Everyday: Authenticity, Scandal, and Subversion

(Preliminary remarks; The Cynics and a doctrine of existence; The Holy Fools)

Chapter  III
Rewriting History and Blurring of Boundaries: Body and Performance in the 20th Century

(Introduction to the notes of the avant-garde and the cultural critics)
1. The Margins of Theatricality and Words
2. Sound, Movement, Gesture: Music and Dance
3. Beyond the Borders of Picture and Matter: Painting and Sculpture
(Peggy Guggenheim and Jackson Pollock; Niki de Saint Phalle; Eva Hesse; Joseph Beuys)
4. Towards the Sense

Chapter IV
S(he) – Carolee Schneemann

Istory; Dychotomies, binary oppositions, and “not-me”; Carolee Schneemann’s performance

Chapter V
Towards the Embodiment of the Subject : Michel Foucault

(Empty space; History of Discontinuity; Between Archaeology and Genealogy; Body and Power; The Hermeneutics of the Subject; The “Rule of Care” and a contemporary subject)

Chapter VI
The Embodiment of the Subject: Maurice Merleau-Ponty

(Philosophy of ambiguity and openness; The spirit of Rene Descartes; A new meaning of consciousness and perception; The phenomenology of the body; Towards the body; Contemporary interpretations; Body as a meaning – the embodiment of the subject)

Bibliography
Introduction
Acting on the past. Historical performance cross the disciplines, red. Mark Franko, Annete Richards, Wesleyan University Press, 2000 Hanover.
Grzegorz Dziamski, Awangarda po awangardzie, Od neoawangardy do postmodernizmu, Wyd. Fundacji Humaniora, Poznań 1995.
Roslee Goldberg, Performance Art. From Futurism to Present, Thames&Hudson, New York 2001.
Amelia Jones, Body art: Performing the Subject, University of Minnesota Press, New York 1998.
Amelia Jones, Performing the body/performing the text, Routledge, New York 1999.
James Elkins, Pictures of the body: Pain and Metamorphosis, Stanford University Press, California1999.
Performance, praca zbiorowa. Wybór tekstów: Grzegorz Dziamski, Henryk Gajewski, Jan St. Wojciechowski, Młodzieżowa Agencja Wydawnicza, Warszawa 1984.
Peggy Phelan, Unmarked: The politics of performance, Routledge, New York 1993.
„Art Journal”, Vol.56, No. 4, Winter, 1997.

CHAPTER I
Svetlana Alpers, The Art of Describing: Dutch Art in the Seventeenth Century, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago 1983.
Anthropologies of Art, red. Mariët Westermann, Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute, Williamstown 2005.
Antropologia. Jedna dyscyplina, cztery tradycje: brytyjska, niemiecka, francuska, i amerykańska, Fredrik Barth, Andre Gingrich, Robert Parkin, Sydel Silverman, WUJ, Kraków 2007.
Alan Barnard, Antropologia, PIW, Warszawa 2006.
Michael Baxandall, Painting and Experience in Fifteenth Century Italy, Oxford Paperbacks, Oxford1972.
Culture. A Critical Review of Concepts and Definitions. Papers of the Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University Volume 47, No. 1, Cambridge 1952.
James Elkins, Visual studies. A skeptical introduction, Routledge, New York 2003.
Thomas Hylland Eriksen, Small Places, Large Issues. An Introduction to Social and Cultural Anthropology, Pluto Press, London 2001.
Clifford Geertz, Zastane światło. Antropologiczne refleksje na tematy filozoficzne, tł. Z.Pucek, Universitas, Kraków 2003.
Picture postcard values 2003, David Anthony Smith, Philip John Smith, IPM Promotions, London 2003.
The Routledge Encyclopedia of Social and Cultural Anthropology, red. Alan Barnard and Jonathan Spencer, Routledge, New York 2010.
Rethinking Visual Anthropology, red. Marcus Banks, Howard Morphy, Yale University Press, New Haven 1997.
Visualizing Anthropology, red. Anna Grimshaw, Amanda Ravetz, New Media Intelect, Portland 2005.

„History of Education Quarterly”, Vol. 34, No. 1, Spring, 1994.; „October”, Vol. 77 (Summer, 1996).

CHAPTER II
Acts and Texts, Performance and Ritual in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, red. Laurie Postlewate, Wim Hüsken,  Amsterdam-New York 2007.
Marla Carlson, Performing Bodies in Pain. Medieval and Post-Modern Martyrs, Mystics, and Artists, Palgrave Macmillan, New York 2010.
Lawrence Cunningham, A Brief History of Saints, Blackwell, 2005.
Michel Foucault, Le Courage de la vérité. Le Gouvernement de soi et des autres II. Cours au Collège de France. 1984, Gallimard, Paris 2008.
Gender and Holiness. Men, Women and Saints in Late Medieval Europe, red. Samatha J.E. Riches, Sarah Salih, Routledge, London 2002.
Holy Women of Byzantium: Ten Saints’ Lives in English Translation, No. 1  Byzantine Saints’ Lives in Translation, red. Alice-Mary Talbot, Harvard University, Cambridge 1996.
Sergey A. Ivanov, Holy Fools in Byzantium and Beyond, tł. Simon Franklin, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2006.
Derek Krueger, Symeon the Holy Fool: Leontius’s Life and the Late Antique City, University of California Press, Berkeley 1996.
Diogenes Laertios, Żywoty i poglądy sławnych filozofów, tł. I. Krońska, PWN, Warszawa 1982.
Męczennicy, red. M. Starowieyski, E. Wipszycka, Kraków 1995.
Luis E. Navia, Classical Cynicism: a Critical Study, Greenwood Press, London 1996.
Joyce E. Salisbury, The Blood Of Martyrs, Unintended Consequences Of Ancient Violence, Routledge, New York 2004.

„Journal of the American Oriental Society”, Vol. 20, 1899.; „Vigiliae Christianae”, Vol. 44, No. 2, Jun., 1990.; Derek Krueger, Symeon the Holy Fool: Leontius’s Life and the Late Antique City, University of California Press, Berkeley 1996, UC Press E-Books Collection, 1982-2004; The Canons of the Eastern Orthodox: https://sites.google.com/site/canonsoc/home/-canons-of-the-particular-councils/gangra-council-340

CHAPTER  III
100 Artists’ Manifestos. From the Futurists, to the Stuckists, Alex Danchev, Penguin Classics, London 2011.
Acting on the past. Historical performance cross the disciplines, red. Mark Franko, Annete Richards, Wesleyan University Press, Hanover 2000.
Anthology of Germen Expresionist Drama, Cornel University Press, Itkaca 1984.
Michael Archer, Art since 1960, Thames and Hudson, New York 1997.
Antonin Artaud, Teatr i jego sobowtór. Teorie współczesnego teatru, Jan Błoński, Wydawnictwa Artystyczne i Filmowe, Warszawa 1966.
Odette Aslan, Aktor XX wieku. Ewolucja techniki. Zagadnienia etyki,  PIW, Warszawa 1978.
Sally Banes, Terpsichore in sneakers: post-modern dance, Wesleyan University Press, Hanover 2011.
Ray Barfield, A Word from Our Viewers: Reflections from Early Television Audiences, Praeger, Westport 2007.
Christa Baumgarth, Futuryzm, tł. Jerzy Tasarski, Wydawnictwo Artystyczne i Filmowe, Warszawa 1987.
Kazimierz Braun, Druga Reforma Teatru?, Ossolineum, Wrocław 1979.
Kazimierz Braun, Wielka reforma teatru w Europie. Ludzie — idee — zdarzenia, Ossolineum, Wrocław 1984.
Judith Butler, Uwikłani w płeć, tł. K.Krasuska, Warszawa 2008.
Ramsa Burt, Judson Dance Theate. Performative traces, Routlege, New York 2006.
David Carrier, Rosalind Krauss and American Philosophical Art Criticism, Praeger, Westport 2002.
Ian Chilves, The Oxford Dictionary of Art and Artists, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2009.
Vanessa Corby, Eva Hesse Longing, Belonging and Displacement, I.B. Tauris, London 2010.
Urszula Czartoryska, Od pop-artu do sztuki konceptualnej, Wydawnictwo Artystyczne i Filmowe, Warszawa 1973.
Dance History. A methodology for study, red. Janet Adshead, June Layson, Routledge, New York 1994.
Bram Dijkstra, Idols of Perversity: Fantasies of Feminine Evil in Fin-de-Sidcle Culture, Oxford University Press, New York 1986.
Grzegorz Dziamski, Awangarda po awangardzie, Od neoawangardy do postmodernizmu, Wydawnictwo Fundacji Humaniora, Poznań 1995.
Erica Fischer-Lichte, History of European Drama and Theatre, tł. Jo Riley, Routledge, London 2002.
Alexandra Juhasz, Women of Vision: Histories in Feminist Film and Video, University Of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis 2001.
Roslee Goldberg, Performance Art. From Futurism to Present, Thames&Hudson, New York 2001.
Ernst Gombrich, O sztuce, Arkady, Warszawa 1997.
Mary E. Harris, Christopher Benfey, Eva Diaz, Edmund de Waal, Jed Perl, Starting at Zero: Black Mountain College, 1933-1957, Kettle’s Yard Gallery, Cambridge 2005.
Happenings and Other Acts, red. Mariellen R. Sandford, Routledge, London 1995.
Hannah Higgins, Fluxus experience, University of California Press, Berkeley 2002.
David Hopkins, After Modern Art  1945-2000, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2000.
Amelia Jones, Body art: Performing the Subject, University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis 1998.
Amelia Jones, Performing the body/performing the text, Routledge, New York 1999.
Amelia Jones, Self/Image: Technology, Representation, and the Contemporary Subject, Routledge, New York 2006.
Allan Kaprow,  red. Jeff Kelley, Essays on the Blurring of Art and Life, University of California Press, Berkeley 2003.
Tadeusz Kantor, Pisma, wybrał i opracował Krzysztof Pleśniarowicz, t. 2: Teatr Śmierci. Teksty z lat 1975-1984, Zakład Narodowy im. Ossolińskich – Ośrodek Dokumentacji Sztuki Tadeusza Kantora Cricoteka, Wrocław – Kraków 2005.
Jan Kłossowicz, Tadeusz Kantor, Teatr, PIW, Warszawa 1991.
Oskar Kokoschka, My Life, tł. David Britt, Macmillan Co., New York 1974.
Leszek Kolankiewicz, Święty Artaud, Słowo/obraz terytoria, Gdańsk 2001.
Adam Kotula, Piotr Krakowski, Rzeźba współczesna, Wydawnictwo Artystyczne i Filmowe, Warszawa1985.
Rosalind Krauss, Passages in Modern Sculpture, The Mit Press, Cambridge 1981.
La fete. The donation Niki de Saint Phalle, red. Michael Quasthoff, Sprengel Museum, Hannover 2001.
Pericles Lewis, Cambridge Introduction to Modernism, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2007.
Lucy Lippard, Eva Hesse, New York University Press, New York 1976.
Jon McKenzie, Performuj albo… Od dyscypliny do performansu, tł. T. Kubikowski, Universitas, Kraków 2011.
Niki de Saint Phalle – Bilder, Figuren, Phantast. Gärten, Kunsthalle d. Hypo-Kulturstiftung, Schulz-Hoffmann, Pierre Descargues, München 1987.
Niki de Saint Phalle – Im Garten der Fantasie In the Garden of Fantasy, Klosterneuburg, Sammlung Essl, Wien 2010.
Performance, praca zbiorowa. Wybór tekstów: Grzegorz Dziamski, Henryk Gajewski, Jan S. Wojciechowski, Młodzieżowa Agencja Wydawnicza, Warszawa 1984.
Peggy Phelan, Unmarked: The politics of performance, Routledge, New York 1993.
Mieczysław Porębski, Kubizm. Wprowadzenie do sztuki XX wieku, Wydawnictwo Artystyczne i Filmowe, Warszawa 1980.
Hans Richter, Dadaizm, Wydawnictwo Artystyczne i Filmowe, Warszawa 1983.
Bernice Rose, Thinking Is Form: The Drawings of Joseph Beuys,  MoMA, 13, Winter-Spring 1993.
Janice Ross, Richard Schechner, Ann Halprin: Experience as Dance, University of California Press, Berkeley, 2009.
Mike Sell, Avant-Garde Performance and the Limits of Criticism: Approaching the Living Theatre, Happenings/Fluxus, and the Black Arts Movement, Theater: Theory/Text/Performance, University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor 2008.
Simon Shepherd, Mick Wallis, Drama/Theatre/Performance, Routledge, New York 2004.
Alan Sikes, Representation and Identity from Versailles to the Present: The Performing Subject,Palgrave Studies in Theatre and Performance History, Palgrave Macmillan, New York 2007.
Teksty z lat 19651969. Wybór, red. Janusz Degler, Zbigniew Osiński, Wrocław 1990.
The Bulletin of the Museum of Modern Art, Sam Hunter, Jackson Pollock, Bernard Karpel, Vol. 24, No. 2, Jackson Pollock, New York  1956-1957.
The Fluxus Performance Workbook, red. Ken Friedman, Owen Smith, Lauren Sawchyn, Performace Research e-publication, 2002.
The Secret Block for a Secret Person in Ireland, MOMA, Oxford 1974; ICA, London,1974;  MOMA, Edinburgh, 1974; Ulster Museum, Belfast, 1974; Municipal Museum of Modern art, Dublin 1974.
Theater of the Avant-Garde, 1890-1950, A Critical Anthology, red. Bert Cardullo, Robert Knopf, Yale University Press, New Haven 2001.
Theatre in Theory 1900-2000: An Anthology, red. David Krasner, Wiley-Blackwell, Malden 2007.
Karl Eric Toepfer, Empire of Ecstasy: Nudity and Movement in German Body Culture, 1910-1935, University of California Press, Berkeley 1997.
Ulmer Gregory L. Ulmer, Applied Grammatology: Post(e)-Pedagogy from Jacques Derrida to Joseph Beuys, The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore 1984.
Von Niki Mathews Zu Niki de Daint Phalle, Gemalde der 1950er Jahre, Mit einem Text von Ulrich Krempel, Sprengel Museum, Hannover 2002.
Jacek Wachowski, Performans, Słowo/ obraz terytoria, Gdańsk 2011.
Tomasz Wilmański, Kikakoku, czyli przestrzeń słowa, Zeszyty Artystyczne nr 9, PWSSP, Poznań 1996.

„Art Journal”, Vol. 56, No. 4, Winter, 1997.; „Artforum”,  VI, April 1970. ; „Artforum”, VII, May 1970. „The Drama Review: TDR”, Vol. 41, No.3, Autumn, 1997.; „The Drama Review: TDR”, Vol. 48, No. 1, Spring, 2004.; „The Drama Review: TDR”, Vol. 12, No. 3, Spring, 1968.; „The Drama Review: TDR”, Vol. 14, No. 1, Autumn, 1969.; „Furia Pierwsza”, nr 7, 2000.; „October”, Vol. 104, Spring, 2003.;„October”, Vol. 12, Spring, 1980.; „Theatre Journal”, Vol. 35, No. 2, May, 1983.; „Woman’s Art Journal”, Vol. 28, No. 1, Spring – Summer, 2007.; „Philosophica”, 30, 1982.

CHAPTER IV
Judith Butler, Bodies That Matter: On the Discursive Limit of „Sex”, Routledge, New York-London 1993.
Judith Butler, Uwikłani w płeć, tł. K.Krasuska, Wydawnictwo Krytyki Politycznej, Warszawa 2008.
Correspondence Course: An Epistolary History of Carolee Schneemann and Her Circle, red. Kristine Stiles, Duke University Press, Durham and London 2010.
Dalia Judovitz, The culture of the body. Genealogies of Modernity, University Of Mitchigan Press, Ann Arbor 2001.
Lucy Lippard, The Pains and Pleasures of Rebirth: European and American Women’s Body Art, From The Center: Feminist Essays on Women, E.P. Dutton, New York 1976.
Nature, Culture and Gender, Red. C. P. MacCormack, M. Strathern, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1980.
Peggy Phelan, Unmarked, The Politics of Performance, Routledge, New York 1993.
Carolee Schneemann, Cezanne she was a great painter: the second book January 1975, unbroken words to women, sexuality creativity language art history Cezanne, Tresspuss Press, New Paltz 1975.
Carolee Schneemann, Imaging Her Erotics. Essays, Interviews, Projects, The MIT Press, Cambridge 2003.
Rebecca Schneider, The Explicit Body in Performance, Routledge, New York 1997.

CHAPTER V
Michel Foucault, Archeologia wiedzy, Państwowy Instytut Wydawniczy, Warszawa 1977.
Michel Foucault, Hermeneutyka podmiotu. Wykłady w Collège de France, 1981-1982, tł. Michał Herer, Warszawa 2012.
Michel Foucault, Historia seksualności, Czytelnik, Warszawa 1995.
Michel Foucault, Historia seksualności, tł. Banasiak, T. Komendant, K. Matuszewski, Czytelnik, Warszawa 1995.
Michel Foucault, Ja, Piotr Riviere, skorom już zaszlachtował moją matkę, moją siostrę i brata mojego… Przypadek matkobójcy z XIX wieku, Przedstawił Michel Foucault, tł. Tadeusz Komendant, Grzegorz Wilczyński, Słowo/obraz, terytoria, Gdańsk 2002.
Michel Foucault, Le Courage de la vérité. Le Gouvernement de soi et des autres II. Cours au Collège de France. 1984, Paris-Seuil 2008.
Michel Foucault, Nadzorować i karać, tł. Tadeusz Komendant, Aletheia, Warszawa 1993.
Michel Foucault, Narodziny kliniki, Narodziny kliniki, tł. Piotr Mrówczyński, Wydawnictwo KR,Warszawa 1999.
Michel Foucault, Narodziny Kliniki, tł. Paweł Pieniążek, KR, Warszawa 1999.
Michel Foucault, Powiedziane, napisane. Szaleństwo i literatura, tł. Bogdan Banasiak, Tadeusz Komendant, Małgorzata Kwietniewska, Ariadna Lewańska, Michał Paweł Markowski, Paweł Pieniążek, posłowie (Anty-Hermes) Michał P. Markowski,  Aletheia, Warszawa 1999.
Michel Foucault, Słowa i rzeczy, Archeologia nauk humanistycznych, tł. Tadeusz Komendant, Anna Tatarkiewicz, Słowo/obraz terytoria, Gdańsk 2007.
Andrzej Kapusta, Filozofia ekstremalna, Wokół myśli krytycznej Michela Foucaulta, Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej, Lublin 2002.
Michel Foucault, Filozofia, historia, polityka: wybór pism. tł. D. Leszczyński, L.Rasiński, PWN, Warszawa 2000.
Sara Mills, Michel Foucault, Routledge, New York 2005.

 

CHAPTER VI
Ferdinand Alquie, Kartezjusz, tł. S.Cichowicz, PAX, Warszawa 1989.
Henry Bergson, Materia i pamięć, tł. R.J.Weksler-Waszkinel, Zielona Sowa, Kraków 2006.
Judith Butler, The Psychic Life of Power: Theories in Subjection, Stanford, Stanford University Press, Chicago 1997.
Chiasms: Merleau-Ponty’s Notion of Flesh, red. Fred Evans, Leonard Lawlor, State University of New York Press, New York 2000.
Perspectives on Embodiment: The Intersections of Nature and Culture, red. Gail Weiss, Honi Fern Haber, Routledge, London 1999.
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Rene Descartes, Świat albo traktat o świetle, tł. T. Śliwiński, Wydawnictwo Aureus, Kraków 2005.
Marek Drwięga, Ciało człowieka. Studium z antropologii filozoficznej, Kraków 2005.
Fenomenologia francuska, Rozpoznania /interpretacje /rozwinięcia, red. Jackek Migasiński, Iwona Lorenc, Warszawa 2006.
Theodore F. Geraets, Vers une nouvelle philosophie transcendentale. La génèse de la philosophie de Maurice Merleau-Ponty jusqu‘à la Phénoménologie de la perception. Le physique et le corporel, Springer, La Haye 1971.
Edmund Husserl, Idee czystej fenomenologii i fenomenologicznej filozofii, księga druga tł. i wstęp D. Gierulanka, PWN, Warszawa 1974.
Edmund Husserl, Kryzys nauk europejskich i transcendentalna fenomenologia, tł. S. Walczewska, Rolewski, Toruń 1999.
Edmund Husserl, Idee czystej fenomenologii i fenomenologicznej filozofii, tł. D.Gierulanka, wstęp R. Ingarden, PWN, Warszwa 1974.
Jan Krokos, Fenomenologia Edmunda Husserla, Aleksandra Pfandera, Maxa Schelera, AWK, Lublin 1991.
William A.Luijpen, Fenomenologia egzystencjalna, Instytut Wydawniczy PAX, 1972.
Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Eloge de la philosophie et autres essais, Gallimard, Paris 1953.
Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Fenomenologia percepcji, tł. M. Kowalska, J. Migasiński, Aletheia, Warszawa 2001.
Maurice Merleau-Ponty, La structure du comportement, troisième édition, précédé de Une philosophie du l’Ambiguité par Alphonse De Waelhens, Gallimard, Paris 1953.
Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Les aventures de la dialectique, Gallimard, Paris 1955.
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Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Sens et non-sens, Gallimard, Paris 1948.
Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Signes, Gallimard, Paris 1960.
Maurice Merleau-Ponty, The Incarnate Subject. Malebranche, Biran, and Bergson on the Union of Body and Soul, Humanity Books, Wstęp: Jacques Taminiaux, tł. Paul B. Milan, red. Andrew G.  Bjelland Jr., Patrick Burke, Humanity Books, New York 2001.
Maurice Merleau-Ponty, The structure of behavior, tł.A.L. Fisher, Beacon Press, Boston 1967.
Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Widzialne i niewidzialne, tł. M. Kowalska, J. Migasiński, R. Lis, I. Lorenc, wstęp, całość przekładu przejrzał i poprawił J. Migasiński, Aletheia, Warszawa 1996.
Maurice Mereleau-Ponty, Proza świata. Eseje o mowie, tł.E.Bieńkowska, S.Cichowicz, J.Soczylas, Czytelnik, Warszawa 1996.
Jacek Migaśiński, W stronę metafizyki, Nowe tendencje metafizyczne w filozofii francuskiej połowy XX wieku, Fundacja na Rzecz Nauki Polskiej , Wrocław 1997.
John O’Neill, Perception, Expression and History,Northwestern University Press, Evanston 1970.
Jan Patočka, Świat naturalny i fenomenologia, tł. J.Zychowicz, Wyd. PAT, Kaków 1982.
James Schmidt, M Merleau-Ponty between phenomenology and structuralism, Boston 1985.
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„Village Voice”, 28.04.1966; „Przegląd Filozoficzny – Nowa Seria” 2, 1993